The Sapphire is a variety of the mineral corundum, consisting of aluminum oxide. Sapphires and rubies are closely related, having corundum as their base mineral. The iron pigment in the corundum makes the sapphire blue, while the chromium element in rubies makes them red. Sapphires are the second hardest precious gemstone, second only to diamonds. The most common color is blue, but natural sapphires can also occur in yellow, purple orange and green.
Sapphires are known as the September birthstone and are one of the most popular alternatives for diamond engagement rings. They are known to stimulate concentration, enhance creativity and promote purity and depth of thought. Believed to focus the mind as well as remove unwanted thoughts, depression and mental tension. Sapphires are also known as the stone of new love and commitment, and is said to encourage faithfulness and loyalty.